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of the African Provinces
Ethiopian kingdom remains linked with Coptic patriarchate; metropolitan chosen by patriarch of Alexandria
Anastasius, Patriarch of Alexandria.
Lengthy reign of Heraclius the younger; emperor of the Christian orient, who asserts Byzantine interests in Egypt.
Irish monk Columbanus founds monastery of Bobbio in Italy where ancient African Vetus Latins Ur-texts still reside.
Andronicus, patriarch of Alexandria
Persian occupation of Egypt ends Byzantine Rule.
The Hejira, Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina, begins Islamic era; first year in Muslim calendar, 1 A. H. = Anno Hegirae.
Muhammad attempts to convert 10,000 Jews of Medina; disappointed, he changes direction of the qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca; deports and annihilates the Jewish tribes of Arabia.
Benjamin I, patriarch of Alexandria, author of Easter Epistles and Homily on Cana Wedding, spends ten years in exile under Heraclius and three under the Muslims.
Muhammad begins dictating Qur'an to scribe.
Maximus the Confessor residing in Africa as refugee from Palestine due to Persian invasion, was tried, tortured, and died in exile in 662; writes on forced baptism at Carthage in 632.
Muhammad captures Mecca.
Byzantine recovery of Egypt.
Death of Stephen of Alexandria, philosopher-alchemist-astronomer.
Emperor Heraclius sends Cyrus as pro-Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria, and governor of Egypt, attempting to bring Copts into Melkite church.
Death of Muhammad at Medina; Caliph Abu Bakr begins conquest of Palestine.
Church of Saints Cyrus and John first built in Babylon/ Old Cairo (now st. Barbara.)
Teachings of Jacob (anon.) written after forced conversions in Carthage.
Expansion of Islam, Palestine, Syria and Egypt, where majority populations of Jews and Christians lived, come under Arab domination.
Ps.-Shenute's Vision, prophesies calamities; falsely attributed to Shenute of Atripe.
Arab Conquest of Egypt begins with fall of Pelusium.
Coptic Homily on the Child Saints of Babylon (anon.)
Fall of Fort Babylon, Old Cairo, to Arabs.
Fall of Alexandria; destruction of library of Alexandria witnessed by John of Nikiu, author of universal history, Chronicle, that survived only in Ethiopic- key source for Arab conquest and end of Byzantine rule in Egypt.
Arab conquest of Cyrenaica; Arabs besiege Tripoli, lay waste to Sabratha, and invade eastern Fezzan; Caliphate of Uthman; canonical compilation of the Koran.
African exarch Gregory declares himself Roman Emperor, although he remains in Africa; moves his capital to Sufetula (Sbeitla.)
Arabs burn cathedral of St. Mark in Alexandria.
Victor becomes bishop of Carthage.
Arab conquest of portions of the Maghreb; Gregory dies when defeated outside Sufetula.
Thalassius of Libya, Abbat of monastery in Libyan desert, authored Maxims, befriends Maximus the Confessor.
Irish ornamentation characterized by interlacing motif found frequently in Coptic art; Coptic influence spreads through monks who copied in the scriptoria.
Christian Nubians and Arabs in Egypt agree that Aswan on Nile should mark southern limit of Arab expansion.
Ummayad caliphate; Muslims divide into Sunni (orthodox) and Shia, followers of the caliph Ali.
Death of Maximus Confessor, after the mutilation of his tongue and his right hand, the parts of his body with which he had opposed non-Chalcedonian Christology in his testimony in Africa.
Agathon, patriarch of Alexandria during Arab conquest; ransomed captive slaves; authored Panegyric on Benjamin.Third Council of Constantinople, Sixth ecumenical Council, begun under Constantine IV, completed by the synod in Trullo (692) under Justinian II, condemns monothelitism and monoenergism, confirming that in Christ are two inseparable wills and two inseparable. energies, reemphasizing Chalcedonian Christology.
Campaign of Okba, capture of Tripolitania and Byzacena; foundation of Arab city of Kairouan in Tunisia, a leading intellectual center for early Islamic law.
Third Council of Constantinople, Sixth ecumenical Council, begun under Constantine IV, completed by the synod in Trullo (692) under Justinian II.
John III (John of Sammanud), patriarch of Alexandria, answers Questions of Theodore.
Monks of Africa flee to Gaul and Ireland amid Arab conquest through Africa.
Coptic Life of Isaac of Rakoti, patriarch of Alexandria.
Isaac, patriarch of Alexandria; Menas, Bishop of Nikiu writes Life of Patriarch Isaac.
Coptic eschatology amid Arab rule: Ps.-Athanasius, Apocalypse.
Simon I, patriarch of Alexandria.
Hassan captures Carthage; Arabs defeated by Al-Kahena, queen of the Aures; Carthage recaptured by Byzantines; Hassan retreats to Cyrenaica; Carthage is reconquered by Arabs who rule Ifriqiya.
Menas, monk of Akhmim, remained at Ashmunayn monastery until captured by Arabs; martyred.
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