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African Theology

Contemporary African Theologians


Abdel-Sayed, Edris. Les Coptes d’Egypte: les premiers Chrétiens du Nil. Paris: Publisud, 1992.


Abun-Nasr, Jamil. A History of the Maghrib. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.


Adamo, David Tuesday. Africa and Africans in the New Testament. London: Oxford University Press, 2006.


Adeyamo, Tokunboh. Salvation in African Tradition. Nairobi, Evangel, 1979.


Alberigo, Giuseppe and Ngindu Mushere. Toward the African Synod. London: SCM Press, 1992.


Ameen, Hakim. “St. Mark in Africa.” In St. Mark and the Coptic Church. Cairo: Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate, 1968.


Bediako, Kwame. Theology and Identity: The Impact of Culture upon Christian Thought in the Second Century and in Modern Africa. Oxford: Regnum Books, 1992.


Bediako, Kwame. Christianity in Africa: The Renewal of a Non-Western Religion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1995.


Bediako, Kwame. “Cry Jesus! Christian Theology and Presence in Modern Africa.” Vox Evangelica 23 (1993): 7-25


Ben-Jochannan, Yosef et al. The Afrikan Origins of the Major World Religions. Edited by Amon Saba Saakana. London: Karnak House, 1991.


Boyd, Paul C. The African Origin of Christianity, Vol. 1: A Biblical and Historical Account. London: Karis Press, 1991.


Binwenyi-Kweshi, Oscar. Discours theologique negro-africain - Probleme des fondements (Black African Theological Discourse). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1995.


Bujo, Benezet. Foundations of an African Ethic: Beyond the Universal Claims of Western Morality. Translated from German by Brian McNeil. New York: Crossroads, 2011.


Bujo, Benezet. African Christian Morality at the Age of Inculturation. Nairobi: Paulines Publications, 1990.


Burke, Joan F. These Catholic Sisters Are All Mamas!: Towards the Inculturation of the Sisterhood in Africa, an Ethnographic Study. Leiden: Brill, 2001


Cox, James L., and Gerrie ter Haar, eds. Uniquely African? African Christian Identity from Cultural and Historical Perspectives. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2003.


Ela, Jean-Marc. My Faith as an African. Translated by John Pairman Brown and Susan Perry. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1986.


Galván, Maria Elena González, and Filipe Miguel Oliveira Resende. An African Journey Through Mark’s Gospel. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.


Haile, Getatchew. “A New Ethiopic Version of the Acts of St. Mark” Analecta Bollandiana 99 (1981): 117-34


Hanciles, Jehu. Beyond Christendom: Globalization, African Migration and the Transformation of the West. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2009.


Heisey, Nancy R. Origen, the Egyptian: A Literary and Historical Consideration of the Egyptian Background in Origen’s Writings on Martyrdom. Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.


Idowu, Bolaji. Towards an Indigenous Church. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.


Idowu, Bolaji. African Traditional Religion: A Definition. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1973.


Idowu, Bolaji. Olódùmarè: God in Yoruba Belief. New York: Wazobia, 1994.


Kalewold, Imbakom. Traditional Ethiopian Church Education. Translated by Menghestu Lemma. New York: Teachers College Press, 1971.


Kalu, Ogbo, ed. African Christianity: An African Story. Perspectives on Christianity 5.3. Pretoria: Department of Church History, University of Pretoria, 2005.


Kalu, Ogbu, African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2008.


Kamil, Jill. Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church. New York: Routledge, 2002.


Kamil, Saleh Nakla. Tarikh Al Qidis, Mar Morqos-al-Bashir [History of St. Mark the Evangelist]. Cairo: n.p., 1952.


Katabole, Emanuel. Stories from Bethany: On the Faces of the Church in Africa. Nairobi: Paulines Publications, 2013.


Kato, Byang H. Theological Pitfalls in Africa. Kisumu, Kenya: Evangel, 1975.


Kirwen, Michael C. African Cultural Knowledge: Themes and Embedded Beliefs. Nairobi: Maryknoll Institute of African Studies, 2005.


Kurewa, John Wesley Zwomunondiita. Biblical Proclamation for Africa Today. Nashville: Abingdon, 1995.


Le Quien, Michel, et. al., ed. Oriens Christianus, in quatuor patriarchatus digestus; quo exhibentur ecclesia, patriarchae, caeterique praesules totius Orientis. 3 vols. Paris: Ex Typographia Regia., 1740.


Magesa, Laurenti. Anatomy of Inculturation: Transforming the Church in Africa. Nairobi: Paulines Africa, 2004.


Majawa, Clement Chinkambako Abenguni. Integrated Approach to African Christian Theology of Inculturation. Nairobi: Creations Enterprises, 2005.


Malaty, Fr. Tadros Y. The Gospel According to St. Mark. Translated by George Botros. Revised by Samy Anis and Dr. Nora El-Agamy. Orange, CA: Coptic Orthodox Christian Center, 2003.


Malaty, Fr. Tadros Y. Introduction to the Coptic Orthodox Church. Revised by Samy Anis and Dr. Nora El-Agamy. Alexandria: St. Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Church, 1996.


Malaty, Fr. Tadros Y. The School of Alexandria. 2 vols. Jersey City, NJ: St. Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Church, 1995.


Mana, Ka. Christians and Churches of Africa: Envisioning the Future: Salvation in Jesus Christ and the Building of a New African Society. Theological Reflections from the South. Akropong-Akuapem, Ghana: Regnum Africa, 2002; Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2004.


Manus, Ukachukwu Chris. Christ, the African King: New Testament Christology. Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany: Peter Lang, 1993.


Maviiri, John Chrysostom, African Christian Studies, CUEA Publications, Catholic University of East Africa,


Mbiti, John S. Bible and Theology in African Christianity. Nairobi: Oxford University Press (1986, 1987).


Mbugua, Judy, ed. Our Time Has Come. Association of Evangelicals of Africa and Madagascar. World Evangelical Fellowship by Baker Book House, 1994.


Mpagi, Peter Wasswa. African Christian Theology in the Contemporary Context. Nairobi, Kenya: Marianum Publishing, 2002.


Mofokeng, Takatso Alfred. The Crucified Among the Crossbearers: Towards a Black Christology. Kampen: Kok, 1983.


Mudimbe, V. Y. The Idea of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.


Mugambi, J. N. K. The African Heritage and Contemporary Christianity. Nairobi: Longman Kenya, 1989.


Muschete, Alphonse Ngindu. Les thèmes majeures de la théologie africaine. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1989.


Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura. Women's Spiritual Leadership in Africa: Tempered Radicals and Critical Servant Leaders. SUNY Press, 2010.


Nicoliello, Dominic A. Our Ancestors in the Faith. Nairobi, Kenya. Paulines Publications Africa, 1995.


Nkanshah-Obrempong, James. “The Contemporary Theological Situation in Africa: An Overview.” Evangelical Review of Theology 31, no. 2 (2007): 140-149


Nyamiti, Charles. Christ Our Ancestor: Christology from an African Perspective. Mambo Occasional Papers. Missio Pastoral 11. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo, 1984.


Oduro, Thomas. Christ Holy Church International. Perfect Paperback, 2007.


Ogbo, Keno and Joe Aldred, eds. The Black Church in the 21st Century. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 2010.


Olofinjana, Israel. Twenty Pentecostal Pioneers in Nigeria: Their Lives, Their Legacies. Xlibris Corporation, 2011.


Oshitelu, G.A. The African Fathers of the Early Church. Ibadan, Nigeria: Sefer, 2002.


Pobee, John S. Toward an African Theology. Nashville, Abingdon, 1979.


Riad, Henri, Youssef Hanna Shehatta and Youssef al-Gheriani. Alexandria: An Archaeological Guide to the City. 2nd ed. Alexandria: Regional Authority for Tourism, 1996.


Samuel, Bishop Habib Badie. Ancient Coptic Churches and Monasteries in the Delta, Sinai, and Cairo. Cairo: Institute of Coptic Studies, Amba Reweis Abbasiya, 1996.


Sawirus Ibn al-Mukaffa’. (Severe ibn el Mokaffée.) Homélie sur Sainte Marc, apôtre et évangéliste. Texte arabe et traduction et notes. Translated by J.-J. L. Bargés. 1877. Re-print, Paris, 1952.


Senghor, Léopold Sédar. Liberté, Vol. 3, Négritude et civilisation de l’nniversel. Paris: Editions de Seuil 1977. Cf. idem, “Negritude and the Civilization of the Universal” in African Presence in the Americas, edited by Carlos Moore, pp. 21-32. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1995.


Tiénou, Tite. Theological Task of the Church in Africa. Theological Perspectives in Africa. African Christian Press, 1996.


Verstraelen, Frans. J. History of Christianity in Africa in the Context of African History: A Comparative Assessment of Four Recent Historiographical Contributions. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press, 2002.


By Kwesi Dickson


Theology in Africa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1984.


Story of the Early Church as Found in the Acts of the Apostles. Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd. 1976


(with Paul Ellingworth.) Biblical Revelation and African Beliefs. Lutterworth, 1969.


From Abraham to the Early Days of Israel in the Promised Land (History & Religions of Israel). Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd., 1970.


Uncompleted Mission: Christianity and Exclusivism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1991.


By Lamin Sanneh


Disciples of All Nations: Pillars of World Christianity. Studies in World Christianity. London: Oxford University Press, 2007.


Whose Religion is Christianity? The Gospel Beyond the West. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 2003.


Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa. Harvard University Press, 2000.


The Crown and the Turban: Muslims and West African Pluralism. Westview Press, 1997.


Piety and Power: Muslims and Christians in West Africa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1996.


Religion and the Variety of Cultures: A Study in Origin and Practice. Trinity Press International, 1996.


Encountering the West: Christianity and the Global Cultural Process: The African Dimension. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993.


Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1983.


West African Christianity: The Religious Impact. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1983.


Summoned from the Margin: Homecoming of an African. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2012.


By Mercy Amba Oduyoye


Hearing and Knowledge: Theological Reflections on Christianity in Africa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1986.


(with V Fabella, editor) With passion and compassion: Third world women doing theology, Reflections from the Women’s Commission of the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1988.


The Wesleyan Presence in Nigeria. Ibadan: Sefer, 1992.


Daughters of Anowa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1995.


(editor of) Transforming Power: Women in the Household of God. Ghana: Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians, 1997.


Introducing African Women’s Theology. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.

Beads and Strands: Reflections of an African Woman on Christianity in Africa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2004.

Regarding the African Desert Fathers


Arras, Victor. Collectio monastica: Ethiopic text. Secretariat du CorpusSCO, 1963.


Butler, C. (1967). The Lausiac History of Palladius. Olms. 


Selections from the Sayings of the Desert Fathers. Cistercian Publication, 1975,

Russell, Norman and Ward, Sister Benedicta. Lives of the Desert Fathers, Monastic Studies Series, 34. Gorgias Press and Cistercian Publications.


Ward, Sister Benedicta. (Trans.). (1984). The Sayings of the Desert Fathers: The Alphabetical Collection. Liturgical Press. 


Regarding the African Desert Mothers


Chryssavgis, John. In the Heart of the Desert: Revised Edition: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers (Treasures of the World’s Religions). Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, 2008.


Earl, Mary C. The Desert Mothers: Spiritual Practices from the Women of the Wilderness. Church Publishing, 2007.


Forman, Mary. Praying with the Desert Mothers. Liturgical Press, 2005.


King, Margot. The Desert Mothers. Peregrina Publishing, 1989.


Puttick, Elizabeth. Women as Teachers and Disciples in Traditional and New Religions. Lewiston: The Edwin Millen Press, 1993.

Swan, Laura. The Forgotten Desert Mothers: Sayings, Lives, and Stories of Early Chrstian Women. Paulist Press, 2001.

By Non-Africans

Abdel-Sayed, Edris. Les Coptes d’Egypte: les premiers Chrétiens du Nil. Paris: Publisud, 1992.


Badawy, Alexander. Coptic Art and Archaeology: The Art of Christian Egyptians from the Late Antique to the Middle Ages. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1978.


Bagnall, Roger S. “Archaeological Work on Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, 1995-2000.” American Journal of Archaeology 105 (2001): 227-43.


Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt in Late Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.


Bagnall, Roger S. and Dominic W. Rathbone. Egypt from Alexander to the Copts- An Archaeological and Historical Guide. London: The British Museum Press, 2004.


Benson, E. W. Cyprian: His Life, His Times, His Work. London: Macmillan, 1897.


Bowers, Paul. “Nubian Christianity: The Neglected Heritage.” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 4, no. 1 (1985): 3-23


Brent, Allen. Cyprian and Roman Carthage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Books of the Saints of the Ethiopian Church: A Translation of the Ethiopic Synaxarium. (4 vols.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928.


Budge, E. A. Wallis. Coptic Texts. 5 vols. 1910-1914. Reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1977.


Burns, J. Patout, Jr. Cyprian the Bishop. London: Routledge, 2002.


Clark, Jawanza Eric. Indigenous Black Theology: Toward An African-Centered Theology of the African-American Religious Experience. Palgrave-Macmillan, 2012.


Crouzel, Henri. Origen. Translated by A.S. Worrall. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1989.


Di Berardino, Angelo and Basil Studer, eds. History of Theology, Vol. 1: The Patristic Period. Translated by Matthew J. O’Connell. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1996.


Dunn, Geoffrey D. Tertullian. London: Routledge, 2004.


Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.


Ehrman, Bart D. Didymus the Blind: An Educator of the Fourth Century. Washington, DC: Catholic University of American Press, 1934.


Elliott, J.K., ed. The Apocryphal Jesus: Legends of the Early Church. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.


Frend, W.H.C. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church. London: Blackwell, 1965.


Gauche, William. Didymus the Blind: An Educator of the Fourth Century. Washington, DC: Catholic University of American Press, 1934.


Gelzer, Heinrich. Sextus Julius Africanus und die Byzantinische Chronographie. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1880.


Getty, Marie Madeleine of Jesus, Sister. The Life of the North Africans as Revealed in the Sermons of Saint Augustine. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1931.


Glancy, Jennifer. Slavery in Early Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.


Gonzalez, Eliezer. “Anthropologies of Continuity: The Body and Soul in Tertullian, Perpetua, and Early Christianity.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 21 (2013) 479-502.


Grant, Robert M. Eusebius as Church Historian. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.


Greenslade, S. L., ed. Early Latin Theology: Selections from Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Jerome. Library of Christian Classics 5. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1956.


Groves, C.P. The Planting of Christianity in Africa. (4 vols.) London: Lutterworth, 1948-58.


Hansberry, William Leo, and E. Harper Johnson. “Africa’s Golden Past, Part 2: Historical Facts Challenge Notion That Christianity Is the Religion of the West.” Ebony, January 1965, 86-92.


Hanson, R. P. C. Origen’s Doctrine of Tradition. 1954. Reprint, Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2013.


Harmless, William. Desert Christians: an introduction to the literature of early monasticism. London: Oxford University Press, 2004.


Hastings, Adrian. African Christianity: An Essay in Interpretation. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1976.


Isichei, Elizabeth Allo. A History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.


Jackson, John Glover. The African Origin of Christianity. Chicago: L & P., 1981.


Jaeger, Werner. Two Rediscovered Works of Ancient Christian Literature: Gregory of Nyssa and Macarius. Leiden: Brill, 1954.


Jenkins, Philip. The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia--and How It Died. New York: HarperOne, 2008.


Jurgens, William, ed. The Faith of the Early Fathers. 3 vols. Collegeville, MN: 1970-79.


Johnson, John H. The Black Biblical Heritage: Four Thousand Years of Black Biblical History. Rev ed. Nashville: Winston-Derek, 1993.


Kaplan, Steven. The Monastic Holy Man and the Christianization of Early Solomonic Ethiopia. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1984.


Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christianity. Vol. 1, Beginnings to 1500. Rev. ed. Peabody, MA: Prince, 1997.


Layton, Richard. Didymus the Blind and His Circle in Late-Antique Alexandria. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.


Lilla, Salvatore R. C. Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Platonism and Gnosticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.


Lyman, R. J. Christology and Cosmology: Models of Divine Activity in Origen, Eusebius and Athanasius. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.


Maloney, George, trans. Pseudo-Macarius: The Fifty Spiritual Homilies and The Great Letter. Translated and edited by George Maloney. New York: Paulist, 1992.


Martens, Peter. Origen and Scripture: The Contours of the Exegetical Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.


Martin, M. M. “Une Lecture de l’Histoire des Patriarches d’Alexandrie.” Proche Orient Chrétien 35 (1985): 15-36.


“Martyrdom of Mark the Evangelist.” In Theological Texts from Coptic Papyri, edited by W. E. Crum. Anecdota Oxoniensia. Semitic series 12. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.


“The Martyrdom of Saint Mark the Evangelist in Alexandria.” In The Contendings of the Apostles, Being the Histories of the Lives and Martyrdoms and Deaths of the Twelve Apostles and Evangelists; The Ethiopic Texts Now First Edited from Manuscripts in the British Museum, with an English Translation, 2:309-18. Edited and translated by E. A. Wallis Budge. 2 vols. London: Henry Frowde, 1899-1901.


“Martyrium Marci.” In New Testament Apocrypha, edited by W. Schneemelcher, 2:461-464. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. 6th ed. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989.


Martyrium Marci. Coptic Manuscripts 9450, 9439. Vienna Austria National Library. Vienna, Austria.


McCray, Walter Arthur. The Black Presence in the Bible: Discovering the Black and African Identity of Biblical Persons and Nations. Chicago: Black Light Fellowship, 1990.


Meijering, E.P. Orthodoxy and Platonism in Athanasius: Synthesis or Antithesis? Leiden: Brill, 1968.


Osborn, Eric. Clement of Alexandria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.


Osborn, Eric. Tertullian: First Theologian of the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


Rankin, David. Tertullian and the Church. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.


Russell, Norman. Cyril of Alexandria. New York: Routledge, 2000.


Schenkel, Wolfgang. Kultmythos und Märtyrerlegende: Zur Kontinuität des ägyptischen Denkens. Gottinger Orientforschungen 4.5. Wiesbaden: Harassowitch, 1977.


Scobie, Edward. “African Popes.” In African Presence in Early Europe, edited by Ivan Van Sertima, pp. 96-107. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1985.


Scott, T. Kermit. Augustine: His Thought in Context. New York: Paulist, 1995.


Shaw, Mark. The Kingdom of God in Africa: A Short History of African Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.


Shortt, Charles De Lisle. The Influence of Philosophy on the Mind of Tertullian. London: E. Stock, 1933.


Simonetti, Manlio. Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church: An Historical Introduction to Patristic Exegesis. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1994.


Smith, Morton. The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel According to Mark. London: Victor Gollancz, 1974.


Sylvanus, Nina. “The Fabric of Africanity: Tracing the Global Threads of Authenticity.” Anthropological​​​​ Theory 7, no. 2 (2007): 201-16.


Telfer, W. “Episcopal Succession in Egypt.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 3 (1952): 1-13


Thompson, Peter. “Negritude and a New Africa: An Update.” Research in African Literatures 3, no. 4. (Winter 2002): 143-53.


Torjesen, Karen Jo. When Women Were Priests: Women’s Leadership in the Early Church and the Scandal of Their Subordination in the Rise of Christianity. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993.


Trevijano, R. “The Early Christian Church of Alexandria.” In Studia Patristica 12:471-77. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur 115. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1973.


Trigg, Joseph Wilson. Origen: The Bible and Philosophy in the Third-Century Church. Atlanta: John Knox, 1983.


Tzamalikos, Panayiotes. Origen: Cosmology and Ontology of Time. Leiden: Brill, 2006.


Vivian, Tim. St. Peter of Alexandria, Bishop and Martyr. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.


Volz, Carl. Faith and Practice in the Early Church. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1983.


Weinandy, Thomas G. Athanasius: A Theological Introduction. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.


Weinandy, Thomas G., ed. The Theology of St. Cyril of Alexandria: A Critical Appreciation. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 2003.


Wessel, Susan. Cyril of Alexandria and the Nestorian Controversy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.


White, L. Michael. Building God’s House in the Roman World: Architectural Adaptations Among Pagans, Jews and Christians. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1990.


Wilhite, David E. Tertullian the African: An Anthropological Reading of Tertullian’s Context and Identities. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2007.


Wilken, Robert Louis. Judaism and the Early Christian Mind: A Study of Cyril of Alexandria’s Exegesis and Theology. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1971.


Wills, Gary. Saint Augustine. New York: Viking, 1999.


Young, Josiah Ulysses, III. A Pan-African Theology: Providence and the Legacies of the Ancestors. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1992.

Zahn, Theodor. Athanasius und der Bibelkanon. 1901. Reprint, Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2010.

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